Obesity is the name given to the accumulation of excess fat in the body. Increasing adipose tissue in the body disrupts the hormonal balance of the body and causes more weight gain. The increased amount of fat causes the deterioration of body health, the inability of organs to perform their functions and the formation of some diseases. As the fat mass in the body increases, symptoms such as cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver and increased enzymes, deterioration of skin tissue, respiratory distress, snoring, sleep apnea, excessive sweating, and joint pain are observed.
What Are The Causes Of Obesity?
The main cause of obesity is nutritional disorders. Obesity is common in people who have an unbalanced diet and do not exercise. Consumption of high-calorie and fatty foods leads to obesity.
One of the causes of obesity is genetic predisposition. 80% of people whose parents are obese are predisposed to obesity.
How Is Bariatric Surgery Performed?
There are different application methods in obesity surgery. However, in general, obesity surgery is performed in the form of 3 or 4 small incisions in the abdomen of the patient who is put to sleep with general anesthesia, reaching the stomach with special cameras, removing a certain part of the stomach and giving the new shape of the stomach and suturing that area. After the necessary dressings are made, the obesity surgery is completed. The duration of the operation varies according to the surgical method applied and the dexterity of the doctor.
What Are The Methods Used in The Treatment Of Obesity?
Tube Stomach Surgery (Sleeve Gastrectomy)
Gastric sleeve surgery is one of the most preferred surgical treatment methods in the field of obesity today. It is also known as stomach reduction surgery among the people. In this surgery, a large part of the stomach is removed and its volume is reduced.
With gastric bypass surgery, the stomach and a part of the small intestine are bypassed, and it is aimed that the food taken will reach the last parts of the stomach directly without visiting all or a large part of the stomach, the duodenum and the first parts of the small intestine.
In the gastric balloon method, a balloon is placed in the stomach with an endoscopy device. The balloon is then inflated to create a feeling of satiety.
By entering the stomach with the endoscopic method, Botox is injected into the necessary points, so that the person feels more full. The recovery period in stomach botox is much shorter than in other procedures.
Duodenal Switch process leads to more weight loss as it directly affects the metabolism. It is a viable method for people with a body mass index of more than 50 Kg/m2. In this surgery, both food intake is restricted and the absorption of food taken is reduced.
Before Obesity Surgery
There is a certain period of preparation before obesity surgery. First of all, if the patient needs to lose weight before the operation, he should reach the ideal weight until the day of the operation. Afterwards, the use of drugs such as blood thinners should be stopped at least 1 week before the operation. In the next process, the necessary blood tests of the patient are performed. If the patient has any health problems and other drugs used, the specialist should be consulted. Completing the preparations recommended by the doctor will support the successful completion of the surgery. After all these processes are completed, the patient is ready for surgery.
Nutrition After Bariatric Surgery
It is very important to comply with the 1-year diet program prepared specifically for the patient after the operation. Since the patient has to make a calorie deficit after the operation, the food they eat must have high nutritional value. Protein intake with high nutritional value is important. Since they are fatty, sugary foods and high-calorie drinks, their consumption prevents weight loss. The patient’s nutrition program includes low carbohydrate, high protein.
The patient is initially fed with liquid-based foods after the operation. Then, the nutrition is changed in stages and the diet list that the specialist deems appropriate is made. The patient should chew food a lot and facilitate digestion and consume the amount of water recommended by the doctor.
In order to prevent the decrease in blood values caused by eating less food than before, necessary vitamin and mineral supplements should be used with the recommendation of a doctor.
Nutritional Stages After Obesity Surgery Are As Follows;
Stage 1: Liquid Diet
In the days after the operation, the liquid feeding period begins. During this period, the transition to liquid foods is made. Foods such as skimmed milk, soup and broth, decaffeinated tea or coffee, unsweetened fruit juice are consumed.
Stage 2: Puree Diet
At the stage where liquid foods are gradually released, a puree diet is started. The consumed foods are fed by mashing them with the help of a blender. Spices should not be consumed as they will irritate the stomach. During this period, foods rich in protein, vegetables and fruits should be consumed in puree form. Fruits such as banana, peach, apricot, pear, pineapple, melon can be preferred. Pureed vegetables such as tomatoes, spinach, carrots and green beans can add to the diet program.
Stage 3: Soft Diet
At this stage, the transition to watery, easily chewable foods is made. Food should be consumed slowly and chewed thoroughly. Usually, this stage is passed after the 5th week of the surgery.
Some of the nutrients at this stage include:
- Soft-boiled eggs
- Lean ground beef
- Fat-free cottage cheese
Stage 4: Standard Diet
After the obesity surgery, the standard diet is started after the 9th week. After this stage, the target is protein-based nutrition. Soft meats can be preferred at this stage. Raw vegetables such as lettuce and carrots are consumed. Fluid consumption is continued in a controlled manner. The diet list can be diversified 3 months after the operation.
- Things to consider in nutrition after obesity surgery
- Food should be very chewy
- Water and liquid should be consumed 10-15 minutes before and 20-30 minutes after meals.
- More meals should be made and small portions should be preferred.
- Regular exercise and sports should be done.
- Water consumption should be slow and the amount should be increased gradually. At first, 1 liter should be increased to 1.5-2 liters over time.
- Solid and liquid food and beverages should not be consumed together at meals.
- Routine checks should not be skipped.
- Protein-rich diet should be applied in the post-operative period.
Weight Loss Process after The operation
It is the most important point to pay attention to nutrition after obesity surgery. After the right diet is provided, the weight loss process can take up to 1 year. In this process, although rapid weight loss is experienced, weight loss may stop for a certain period of time. The targeted weight is lost with a careful diet.